Globalization describes interdependence among world nations. It constitutes the transfer of people, goods and services, culture, technology, and ideas across borders. Globalization has positive and negative impacts on security.
Globalization promotes international security. Countries unite to protect common interests, including trade and geopolitical position. For example, when pirates started attacking and hijacking ships in the Indian Ocean, governments worldwide sent militaries in the region to protect cargo ships. Foreign military forces restored security on Somalia’s coastline, allowing international trade to continue seamlessly. Leaving the task on the Somali government would not have solved the problem due to the country’s internal security challenges and ill-equipped navy.
Furthermore, globalization promotes security through intelligence sharing and military alliances. Countries share intelligence in the fight against terrorists, insurgents, or those planning to cause political instability, war, and violence. Close ties between countries allow smaller states and nations without adequate resources to receive security intelligence from global powers such as U.S, Russia, and China. For example, the U.S government advises its allies in the Middle East on security threats, primarily terrorist organizations. Moreover, America’s interests in the Middle East mandate the U.S government to build military bases and send soldiers and equipment into Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq. The presence of a superpower’s military fosters security in any given region.
Globalization facilitates quick response during an emergency or a security threat. The increased movement of people and goods improved coordination and logistics across continents. The existing logistic system, including air routes and airports, allows states to send equipment and aid when a threat or emergency arises. For example, when a soccer team was trapped in a cave in Thailand, international help, including divers, arrived within 24 hours. Likewise, the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has demonstrated the benefits of globalization whereby countries sent and received PPEs, vaccines, and medical supplies efficiently. Such structures and efforts promote global safety and security.
Globalization has created new security vulnerabilities and threats. The threats include drug trafficking, human trafficking, terrorism, cybercrimes, and organized crime groups. Globalization has given rise to international crime rings where criminals operate large-scale illegal activities across continents. For example, organized crime groups in Italy and the U.S. run a global human trafficking and sex trade business; they use their contacts in developing countries to send girls into Italy and U.S, promising the women jobs before coercing them into prostitution. The Hushpuppi’s case demonstrates the new security vulnerabilities and threats presented by globalization. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-58002932. Criminals enter a country, commit a crime, and leave without detection. They also recruit people in different countries to facilitate cross-border crimes.
Another security threat posed by globalization involves the spread of infectious diseases. The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic demonstrates the adverse safety threats presented by the movement of people in and out of countries. The virus was reported in Wuhan, China, in November 2019, but it was wreaking havoc in Europe, especially in Italy, four months later. https://www.who.int/news/item/27-04-2020-who-timeline—covid-19. Italy experienced high infection and death rates because it received many visitors from China, who brought the virus with them. Currently, the coronavirus has negatively impacted every country and sector, illustrating the safety and security risks associated with globalization.
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